For washing wells during drilling, a complex liquid system is used, which are called a drilling solution. Special technological lines are used for the production of drilling fluor, but the composition of different solutions may differ.
Proper drilling solutions allow to stabilize the hole and inhibit the reactions of the rocks. Many other functions are entrusted to them, however, drilling solutions work well only in combination with the ability of a drill to maintain their necessary functions and properties.
Drill solutions can be classified as dangerous for circulation and use in nature, because the production of a drilling solution involves the use of various chemicals in its composition. Nevertheless, the process of using this fluid is designed in such a way that the drilling solution along with the sludge is carried out to the surface after it performs its tasks. Then it is separated from the sludge and returns to the sump. Nevertheless, from time to time, news portals report that traces of drilling mortar are found somewhere (for example, in wells). This means that the drilling company hired a bad technique responsible for the drilling mortar and that most likely, control of drilling sludge on the surface was not observed.
In fact, the use of drilling sludge is an important and complex chain of actions, which can be called a cycle of life of drilling fluids. First, the drilling solution is produced and stored in special containers. Then it is used in the well, and then gently pulled together with the sludge from the working well and sent to the sump, after it has been completely separated from the sludge. And the last stage of the life of a drilling fluid is its disposal.
The disposal of the drilling fluid can be complex, but if the drillers do not carry out this process (and, say, they leave a drilling solution somewhere in nature), then they harm the environment ecology. There are several correct ways of disposal of the drilling fluid, but it is most difficult to work with a liquid drilling solution, although the recycling process is determined by the type of drilling solution.
By the way, speaking of the types of drilling fluid, statistics can be mentioned. As we said above, the production method depends on the composition, but the final scope of use also depends on it. You know that the wells make different needs, therefore, the solutions use the needs and conditions corresponding to these needs. Solutions are made on a different basis (water, synthetics, etc. P.). Most often (in 80% of cases), water -based solutions are used to drill wells. These options are relatively cheap. Solutions with an oil or synthetic base are more expensive, so they are chosen for special conditions.